Random Web Development and Web Designer Tips

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Close button script.

<a href="javascript:window.close();"><img src="images/but_close.gif" border="0" width="74" height="18" vspace="10" alt="CLOSE"></a>

Some browsers will close only window if it was open as pop-up.

Show text inside search box.

<input onfocus="this.value=''" type="text" value="some text" />
<input onfocus="this.select()" type="text" value="some text" />

This gives the user to amend text that they have put in, without having to rewrite it completely if they go back to the box.

Div left – Div Right.

<div align=”center”>
<div style=”width:70%; float:left;”>
some text on the right

<div style=”width:29%; float:right;”>

some text on the left


Advise it to keep it less then 100%  total width.

Frame Kill
Copy this code and paste it between the <head> and </head> tags of your page (after “title”)


      <SCRIPT TYPE="text/javascript"> 
  • top.location=self.document.location;

        if (top.frames.length!=0)
        // -->
    • </SCRIPT>


This code makes your Web page stay in its own full screen window.


Best Practices for Speeding Up Your Web Site

Submitted by reader:

* Minimize HTTP Requests
* Use a Content Delivery Network
* Add an Expires or a Cache-Control Header
* Gzip Components
* Put Stylesheets at the Top
* Put Scripts at the Bottom
* Avoid CSS Expressions
* Make JavaScript and CSS External
* Reduce DNS Lookups
* Minify JavaScript and CSS
* Avoid Redirects
* Remove Duplicate Scripts
* Configure ETags
* Make Ajax Cacheable
* Flush the Buffer Early
* Use GET for AJAX Requests
* Post-load Components
* Preload Components
* Reduce the Number of DOM Elements
* Split Components Across Domains
* Minimize the Number of iframes
* No 404s
* Reduce Cookie Size
* Use Cookie-free Domains for Components
* Minimize DOM Access
* Develop Smart Event Handlers
* Choose over @import
* Avoid Filters
* Optimize Images
* Optimize CSS Sprites
* Don’t Scale Images in HTML
* Make favicon.ico Small and Cacheable
* Keep Components under 25K
* Pack Components into a Multipart Document

What is .htaccess, htaccess.txt files? Htaccess file tips and tricks. How to use htaccess file

This post about:
htaccess reference including many htaccess tips, tricks, and examples. Enhance the functionality of your site with htaccess rewrite and redirect rules. Prevent hotlinking, secure files.

What is HTACCESS file and how to use HTACCESS?

In several web servers (most commonly Apache), .htaccess (hypertext access) is the default name of a directory-level configuration file that allows for decentralized management of web server configuration. The .htaccess file is placed inside the web tree, and is able to override a subset of the server’s global configuration; the extent of this subset is defined by the web server administrator.[1] The original purpose of .htaccess was to allow per-directory access control (e.g. requiring a password to access the content), hence the name. Nowadays .htaccess can override many other configuration settings, mostly related to content control, e.g. content type and character set, CGI handlers, etc.

In the Apache web server, the format of .htaccess is the same as the server’s global configuration file;[2] other web servers (such as Sun Java System Web Server and Zeus Web Server) implement the same syntax, even though their configuration files are very different. Directives in the .htaccess file apply to the current directory, and to all sub-directories (unless explicitly disabled in the server configuration), but for reasons of performance and security, cannot affect their parent directories.

The file name begins with a dot because dot-files are by convention hidden files on Unix-like operating systems (find our more here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Htaccess)
.htaccess files lets you control the behavior of your site or a specific directory on your site. If you place an .htaccess file in your root directory, it will affect your entire site (www.webdesigncny.com). If you place it in a /content directory, it will only affect that directory (www.webdesigncny.com/about).

Using an .htaccess file, you can:

Customize the Error pages for your site.
Protect your site with a password.
Enable server-side includes.
Deny access to your site based on IP.
Change your default directory page (index.html).
Redirect visitors to another page.
Prevent directory listing.
Add MIME types.
.htaccess files are a simple ASCII text file with the name .htaccess. It is not an extension like .html or .txt. The entire file name is .htaccess.

Edit your .htaccess file using a plain text editor that doesn’t use word wrap.
Also .htaccess file will not work if it has these special characters in it.
Visit Apache’s (http://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/howto/htaccess.html) website for your info about .htaccess files

How to block IP by Country?
To block a country by ip address you can add code below to your .htaccess file. This htaccess file blocks access from selected countries by denying access for the IP range of the selected countriesIt also show selected Error page so user from blocked contry might see some user frendly information.

Why you might need to block contry IP?
If you are running a promotion for certain countries and you don’t want visitors from other country to see it.
Also if you are in e-commerce business and buyers from some country had very high chargeback cases, meaning they buy with their credit card and then inform their credit card company that they did not authorize the charge. The credit card company will then reverse the charges, allowing the buyer to get the intangible product for free by cheating.
Additionally, a 403 Forbidden error was encountered while trying to use an ErrorDocument to handle the request”.

To block a country’s IP using .htaccess you need to know the IP range for selected country.
See below example for your reference: htaccess – who to block by country.html


Pricing Strategies. Several major factors influence the pricing for a product or service.

By Alla Gul (MBA) – Our Contributor

Pricing analysis is an important part of marketing.

The following are the foremost strategies that businesses are likely to use:
  • Competition-based pricing
  • Cost-plus pricing
  • Creaming or skimming
  • Limit pricing
  • Loss leader
  • Market-oriented pricing
  • Penetration pricing
  • Price discrimination
  • Premium pricing
  • Predatory pricing
  • Contribution margin-based pricing
  • Psychological pricing
  • Dynamic pricing
  • Price leadership
  • Target pricing
  • Absorption pricing
  • Marginal-cost pricing

First, strategic goals greatly influence pricing.
For example, if the business really wants to get into a new market, then it might charge lower than usual prices in order to generate more customers who buy the service.
Penetration pricing is one of the methods to be used in this case. Next, the business might consider changing pricing if the demand for its products is very high or low.  Promotional pricing is going to be appropriate in this situation. The lose leader strategy may be implemented as a kind of a promotional pricing. Finally, competitor pricing also has a great effect.  If competitors are charging much less, then the business might do well to lower prices. Similarly, if the competitor is charging much more, then the business might consider increasing its own prices.  Market pricing method may be used here.

Below are examples of companies that use different pricing methods appropriate to their particular circumstances.

  1. Penetration pricing: Price way low to enter the market.

This practice generally involves pricing below the competition to gain market entry. Penetration pricing is the pricing technique of setting a relatively low initial entry price, a price that is often lower than the eventual market price. Penetration pricing is most commonly associated with a marketing objective of increasing market share or sales volume. For example, penetration pricing was implemented by Vietnamese manicure and pedicure salons to gain market entry and to increase its market share. About twenty years ago, only wealthy women routinely had manicures and pedicures. Then, Vietnamese manicure/pedicure salons were introduced. While the old shops charged about $25 for a manicure and $45 for a pedicure, at a Vietnamese shop the price was as low as about $25 for both plus additional free services. As a result, many traditional salons lost their loyal customers to new Vietnamese places. In addition, many new customers for these services appeared since prices became more affordable. Today millions of ‘regular’ women make the weekly or biweekly trek to have a manicure and a pedicure in these salons regardless of slightly increased prices.

  1. Personalized pricing: Firms charge different prices to different consumers.

Many companies use personalized pricing to sustain competition, to remain in business, and to grow their business. For example, the United States Postal Services has been offering Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA). It’s a contractual agreement between the Postal Service and a customer to provide pricing incentives to the customer in exchange for a shift in their business mailing practices. According to Stephen M. Kearney, Vice President of Pricing and Classification,

Negotiated Service Agreement, or “NSA,” simply means negotiating pricing with our customers. In many cases, the customer’s behavior change may result in a substantial increase in their mail volume that benefits both the customer and the Postal Service… Today more than ever, the marketplace is very competitive. Businesses need to negotiate pricing to retain customers, to reflect customer needs (such as volume or ease of service), to encourage customer reliance for long-term growth, and to encourage customers to try new products or services. There are many alternatives to mail, and most of them claim to offer better economics, either in cost or return on investment (ROI). Many Postal Service competitors negotiate pricing to win business. The Postal Service needs to negotiate pricing in order to retain and grow its business.

Note: Please read complete interview at the USPS web site at http://www.usps.com/mailerscompanion/mayjune2004/mc0604art1.htm

3. Market pricing: Pricing at the same level as the competition.

A firm has to assess how its product relates to a competitive product and set its price at a comparable level to stay competitive. For example, most agricultural commodities are sold in markets where price has been established by broad market forces. For example, livestock, milk and dairy products, meats, grain, poultry, eggs, etc. are sold at this pricing. While producers in such markets can’t set price, they usually have a ready market for their entire production. Sellers in commodity markets are basically price takers and have to accept the market price. The Upstate Dairy Farms (NY), our local dairy company, is using a market pricing technique for its products. In fact, prices for their milk, butter, and other dairy are very close to similar products of other producers. Another example of companies that use market pricing is fast food restaurants. Their prices are based on market prices that is, what the market will bear. For instance, the market has a set price for a cheeseburger, and restaurants must follow that price. If McDonalds or Burger King will offer a $15 cheeseburger, a vast majority of their current customers (if not all) will not buy it. In other words, the market simply wouldn’t bear it.

  1. 4. Cost-plus pricing: The cost of production plus a designated percentage is cost-plus pricing.

This method is useful in situations where costs are not known in advance. An example would be custom orders in the initial stages of developing a new product. For example, a group of friends of mine opened a company named InfoTech some time ago. They provide different IT services. As they explained to me, often it is very difficult to set a price at the beginning of the project, since projects sometimes are very different and additional details are reviled only in the middle or at the end of the project. So, first they calculate approximately what the price should/could be in order to cover all expenses and add  money on top of it. The price quoted to the buyer is “cost plus” rather than a specific price, and the final price will be established after completion of the project, when all costs are known. The company uses this method because it is relatively easy to implement. However, the cost-based pricing ignores the competition and doesn’t consider what the product is worth to the buyer. A pricing procedure that is not responsive to changes in the market may work initially, but can be a significant obstacle to long-run success.

5. Loss leaders: A company loses money on one service but earns on a related product.

This strategy is often implemented as a part of a promotion campaign. The intent of this practice is not only to have the customer buy the (loss leader) sale item, but other products that are not discounted. These bargains will attract customers who may then purchase other products/services even if they don’t buy the product which price had been initially reduced. This is where a company will make up for the loss as it will be selling other items that generate high profits. One example is HP inkjet printers that are often sold to retail customers below their true value, at a price which seems to be affordable to most consumers. Moreover, these printers are sometimes offered for free – free after rebate, free with a purchase of an HP computer, etc. However, consumers have to pay the regular price for ink cartridges. It is ink cartridges, not the printers that generate high profits for the HP. Another example is Gillette’s safety razor handles that are sold at a loss, but sales of disposable razor blades are very profitable.

Major forces influencing pricing are company’s strategic goals, demand for its products or services, and/or competition. Management should pay particular attention when deciding on pricing methods since the success of the entire business depends on it.

Short WIKI.

What is MBA anyway?
An MBA is a post graduate degree in business communication. MBA stands for Masters of Business Administration and is a very popular course for business students the world over. The MBA program is recognized worldwide and is considered as a major step towards a successful business management career.
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